Wednesday, 9 August 2017

The CDA Regurgitates Its Final Draft Constitution

On the 29th of July 2017 the CDA had once more shocked the Libyans by dramatically voting its final draft constitution [0] without reaching consensus with neither all the CDA's members nor with the two ethnic groups of Libya: the Tebu and the Berbers (the Berber Amazigh and the Berber Tuareg). Out of 60 CDA members only 43 members voted for the proposed draft (out of 44 attendees) and one voted against. 

The GNA's president had welcomed the flawed draft and said nothing about any of the above violations [1]. The HoR so far is silent about the matter, even though many HoR members have "personally" rejected the draft. The Tebu members of the CDA had also rejected the draft [2]. The Amazigh Supreme Council was reported to have said that it will take the CDA to court over the proposed draft as well as write its own Berber constitution.

The final draft was widely criticised for a number of reasons including:

  • The flag was left for the (forthcoming) parliament to decide, instead of enshrining the current flag (of the so-called revolution) in the constitution.

  • The seats of the House of Representatives have not been specified, as opposed to the seats of the Senate (78 members).

  • One of the fundamental flaws of the draft is that it lists the Berbers of Libya as two ethnic groups: the "Amazigh" (the Berbers of the north) and "The Tuareg" (the Berbers of the south), when in fact they are both Berbers belonging to the same and one Imazighen nation of Great North Africa. The Tuareg call themselves "Imushagh" and speak "Tamasheght" which is the same as Tamazight the Amazigh speak. The Berbers of Libya should strongly object to this discrimination being enshrined in the constitution that does not represent them in the first place, and instead request the unification of both tribes as members of the same ethnic group - namely the Imazighen ('The Berbers'). There are more than 40 major Berber tribal groups still inhabiting North Africa to-day including the Imushagh group of the Great Sahara (which foreigners including the Arabs call "Tuareg").

  • The other problem with the draft is that, like all the previous constitutions of Libya, it does not recognise Tamazight ('Berber language') and Tebawi (Tebu language) as official languages of Libya. 

For further violations and  information and to download a copy of the final draft constitution of Libya please see:



General Authority of Endowment Declares Muslim Berbers Infidels

The above edict, written in Arabic, was delivered in response to a question posted by someone who asked about the suitability of dealing with and praying behind an Abadi preacher in Nafousa Mountain, western Libya, who preaches that the "Koran was created".

The Libyan Supreme Fatwa Committee (of the General Authority of Endowment And Islamic Affairs) was widely criticised for declaring most Libya's Berbers "deviant", "Kharijites" and "astray", who adhere to "infidel" doctrines, such as "the Koran being created", and therefore Abadi preachers cannot, the edict continues, lead Islamic prayers in a mosque. 

The president of the GNA, Mr. Sarraj, speaking in general terms had condemned incitement to hatred and "fitna", but made no specific mention (whatsoever), neither by name nor by organisation, to the radical edict nor to the Supreme Fatwa Committee [1].

Still worse, the Bayda government (the government appointed by the HoR) has approved the edict made by its religious authority (the Supreme Fatwa Committee), and even stated that the Supreme Fatwa Committee is "moderate" [7] and that the edict said nothing about the Abadites possessing infidel doctrines. This is very, very strange because the above fatwa clearly mentions in Arabic the Abadite as

الإباضية فرقة منحرفة ضالة، وهم من الباطنية الخوارج، وعندهم عقائد كفرية، كعقيدتهم بأن القرآن مخلوق وعقيدتهم في إنكار الرؤية

and even stated that praying behind them is "indignified" and "not permitted" (فلا يُصلّى خلفهم ولا كرامة). Does this mean that the Prime Minister cannot read Arabic? Or does it mean there is an evil agenda to wind-up the Berbers to cause civil war in Libya? Whatever the reason behind all of this nonsense the world needs to know that most Berbers abhor violence and have no intention of swallowing the bait swallowed by their neighbouring brothers across the region. All attempts to drag the Imazighen into this "global war on terror" will be doomed. Terror is simply a matter for intelligence to weed out, in silence, without firing a single bullet, if, of course, the intention is to eradicate the radicals! 

The audacity is that instead of repudiating such extreme hatred and radical edict, the Bayda government said the fatwa made no mention of the "Amazigh" by name, although everyone knows that in Libya only the Berbers (the Amazigh) are Abadite (or Ibadis or Abadis). This is like saying the inhabitants of Jeddah are infidels, and when the Saudis complain, one can reply to them by saying: who said anything about the Saudis! 

From a Berber perspective such statements and fatwas serve no purpose other than "fitna" and incitement to hatred; and to deny a link between Abadite and Imazighen is like adding insult to injury; and hence Libyaherald wrote: "The Beida-based government has sided with its Awqaf (religious endowments) and Islamic Affairs Authority in the row over the latter’s fatwa damning Ibadis as infidels. It has claimed that the committee is moderate . . . despite the fact that a large proportion of Libya’s Amazigh community are Ibadis" [2].

Over two-hundred (200) Libyan intellectuals including writers and academics and political activists and journalists have signed a statement [8] totally rejecting sectarian religious discourse (الخطاب الديني التصنيفي) that divides Libyans (الذي يشق صف الليبيين) and strives to disseminate hate speech amongst the sons and daughters of one nation (ويجتهد في بث خطاب الكراهية بين أبناء الوطن الواحد). They have also questioned the role of the General Authority of Endowment And Islamic Affairs and the nature of its political project that targets individuals and institutions in a way that does not agree with the principles on which the General Authority of Endowment is based. The National Commission for Human Rights in Libya had also condemned the fatwa [5].

According to  the Amazigh Supreme Council [6]:

"The Amazigh Supreme Council, declares absolute rejection of the fatwa issued by the High Committee of Fatwas, affiliated to the so called Interim Government, located in eastern Libya. In that fatwa, they stated that Ibadhi muslims are a deviant astray group, belonging to Khawarij and possess infidel doctrines. Which is a direct incitement for a genocide of the Amazigh people in Libya, a blatant violation of international treaties and conventions, a call for unrest among Libyans by threatening the social peace in the country, and the possibility of propagation of this menacing speech to neighboring countries; Algeria and Tunisia; Therefore, we call all Libyans to refrain from being persuaded by such racist and menacing speech. During these difficult times, we urge all the military councils of all the Local Governance Units within the membership of the Amazigh Supreme Council, to unify their work and efforts to guard security and stability. Furthermore, we call the international community to commit to its duties of protecting civilians. Tripoli, 10/07/2017 (27/06/2967ⵣ) "


[0] The full fatwa:

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

Finally Haftar Meets Sarraj On Foreign Land (حفتر يلتقي السراج في أبو ظبي)

Haftar Meets Sarraj
Photo source: Lana News

Finally Haftar and Sarraj met in UAE [1] on Tuesday the 2nd of May 2017. One of the confirmed points of agreement is that they agreed to meet again in Cairo on the following week. Initially the Libyan media reported various points agreed between the two, but later it emerged that some of the points reported by the media were, as usual, not true. The following is what the media said; followed by what the GNA's website announced; then followed by the joint statement that came from the UAE. First, what the media said [2]:

Media's Report

  • To keep the dialogue open
  • To meet again in Cairo on the following week
  • To form a work team to oversee the completing of the agreement
  • To form a smaller Presidential Council made of three members
  • To unite the Libyan army
  • To hold presidential and legislative elections before March 2018
  • To discuss cancelling Article 8 of the LPA (only one source reported this point [3])
  • To reject all foreign military interference in Libya's affairs
  • To reject the settlement of illegal immigrants in Libya
  • To fight the [international] terrorism [imposed on Libya]
  • To dissolve all militia and armed groups

GNA's Official Statement

That was how various Libyan media outlets reported the meeting. However, on the following day, the website of the GNA [4] published its official statement regarding the meeting, and according to this document there is no such agreement. This document says [according to Temehu's translation] is that: "there was emphasis on a number of issues the most important of which are as follows". This sentence does not indicate any kind of agreement, just emphasis that the listed issues are important. Nonetheless, these issues are as follows:

  • The call for a social dialogue to establish national principles and the idea of building a democratic country, and the work towards the constitution to overcome the transitional period.
  • The necessity to return the Libyan displaced and refugees to their homes and work towards national reconciliation.
  • Legally uniting the state's institutions and preserving the principles of the 17th of February.
  • Work towards finding solutions to the financial problems the Libyans suffer from.
  • Presenting a strategy to build the Libyan army and the emphasis that the army must be under the command of civil government.
  • Uniting all efforts to fight terror.
  • Calming the situation in the south of Libya.
  • Taking all the steps to ensure a peaceful and transparent authority of governance, and fighting corruption.

Download the official statement regarding Sarrah-Haftar Meeting - part 1

Download the official statement regarding Sarrah-Haftar Meeting - part 2

Joint Statement (بيان مشترك في ختام لقاء المشير حفتر والسراج في أبو ظبي )

The Joint statement [5] states the following points of agreement:

  • To preserve the national unity of the country
  • To activate the Libyan army to fight terror, protect the borders, and secure the country
  • Addressing the problem of militias and collecting arms from the people
  • Amending the LPA
  • Work towards lifting the embargo on the Libyan army
  • Calming the situation in Fezzan

Download The Joint Statement by Sarraj And Haftar

Update 1:

The Cairo Meeting

It emerged later that the Cairo meeting between Haftar and Sarraj had never took place. According to a number of speakers in Libyaschannel's Sejjal, Mr. Sarraj failed to attend the Cairo meeting because he was controlled by the Islamist militias controlling Tripoli which ordered him not to go [6]. The GNA's website did even mention the news of the meeting with Haftar [8]. However, Haftar did go to Cairo on the following week but instead he met President Sisi; followed by a visit of the Egyptian Chief of Staff to Cyrenaica a few days later.

Instead, forces operating in the area controlled by the GNA, particularly the Third Force, attacked LNA's air base in Brak Ashshathi on Thursday the 18th of May 2017; massacring 142 people in cold blood. The Libyan army said it will retaliate by attacking the Jufra base (near Houn and Sukna) - an area allegedly controlled by Islamist and radical militias including Qaeda-affiliates. The GNA, on the other hand, had suspended their Defence Minister, Mr. Almahdi Alberghthi [7].

All in all, it seems tragedy that the UN imposes such a government in violation of the democratic rule for which the country was destroyed by its bombing campaign in 2011 allegedly to protect the Libyan civilians (by placing them in greater danger than ever before in Libya's entire history).

Update 2:

Haftar's Revelations To Journalist Esa Abdulqayyoum

On the 25th of May 2017 the Libyan Almarsad (صحيفة المرصد الليبي) published an interview with Haftar in which the latter revealed a 12-point plan which he discussed with president Sarraj. The interview [9] was conducted by the Libyan journalist Esa Abdulqayyoum (عيسى عبدالقيوم), who said he decided to follow the matter after Sarraj had failed to attend the Cairo meeting and as a result he requested an interview with Field-Marshal Haftar.

According to this interview, Haftar was shocked to hear that president Sarraj attended the meeting without presenting any suggestions or solutions to the problem and that (according to Haftar) president Sarraj told him he attended the meeting only to break the silence, and that Sarraj only requested calming the situation in Fezzan.

However, Haftar did present a 12-point plan for discussion, to which president Sarraj responded by saying he will take the proposals to Tripoli and discuss with other "unnamed authorities" in the west of Libya.

Haftar's 12-point proposal can be translated as follows:

  1. Libya is one united state not to be divided.

  2. The Libyan National Army is the only army in Libya and no other parallel military power will be allowed; the army will include everyone who carries a legal military number subject to the laws of the military institution.

  3. No dominion by the government over the army which will come under the jurisdiction of the Presidency Council once agreed upon its structure.

  4. Total rejection of any foreign intervention in building the army and securing all towns and cities including Tripoli.

  5. The Libyan army is responsible for protecting the country's resources like the petroleum terminals, water resources, gas, and all Libya's borders.

  6. The forthcoming executive government must not come under the control of any political party, ideology or militia.

  7. Daesh (ISIL), Qaeda, Ansar al-Sharia, LIFG, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Benghazi Defence Brigades (BDB) must be regarded as "terror organisations".

  8. Dissolving all types of militias and brigades according to an agreed legal frame, and propose an alternative for those who do not wish to join the army.

  9. Prohibiting ownership of arms and weapons except what is permitted by law.

  10. Any procedure outside the boundaries of the Constitutional Declaration (CD) and its Amendments shall be regarding void.

  11. The continuation of the fight against terrorism as defined above until Libya is totally free of terror in order to insure the safety of all Libyans and begin the development of the country.

  12. The Central Bank of Libya, the National Oil Corporation, and the Libyan Foreign Investment Board are sovereign institutions not subject to government (مؤسسات سيادية لا تخضع للحكومة).

To Read the full interview in Arabic please follow this link:لأول-مرة-حفتر-يكشف-عن-وثيقة-النقاط-الـ-12/

For further information about the UN-imposed GNA please visit:



Wednesday, 24 August 2016

Libya's Parliament Votes To Reject Proposed Government of National Accord (GNA)

مجلس النواب يصوت على حكومة الوفاق الوطني المقترحة بالرفض 

In a chaotic session the HoR had voted on the 22nd of August 2016 to reject the proposed Libyan government of national accord (GNA). The HoR's website says 101 MPs attended the session and therefore reaching the required quorum (النصاب القانوني). Sixty one MPs voted not to give confidence to the proposed GNA; one MP gave confidence; and thirty nine MPs abstained. 

Many HoR members were angry about the way the voting was suddenly announced. Apparently the HoR's agenda, جدول الأعمال , does not include voting. As far as many MPs are concerned the agenda for today's session contains only two topics: 

  • amending the internal regulations (تعديل اللائحة الداخلية) 
  • discussing the referendum on the draft constitution (مناقشة الاستفتاء على مشروع الدستور).

However, according to the HoR the agenda for the session is the same agenda laid out months ago, which includes voting whether to grant or not to grant confidence to the proposed GNA.  Libyas Channel said the agenda is the same as the suspended agenda of the 25th of January 2016, which includes the following topics:

  • amending the constitutional declaration (مناقشة واعتماد الاعلان الدستوري), which was postponed again for lack of quorum (134+1) 
  • voting over the proposed GNA (اعتماد حكومة الوفاق), which was rejected by 61 votes on the 22nd of August 2016. 

The second deputy president of the HoR was reported to have said that the voting is illegal because the session agenda was changed suddenly (جدول الأعمال تمّ تغييره بشكل مفاجئ). He also said that the fact that the HoR's president had ordered the PC to form a third government shows that he has no intention of removing the UN-imposed PC (the Presidency Council, also known as the Presidential Council).

The second deputy agreed that the PC has failed and that a new government is required, but he was not happy with the manner in which the HoR conducted this session, which he says would deepen the divide.

Other HoR members, however, were reported to have said that the PC has no legitimacy to form a third a government because according to Article 180 the PC has failed twice to form a government. This indicates that the PC itself must be replaced.

Final Ultimatum

The twist however is that according to the controversial (and NTC-imposed) constitutional declaration (CD), if the proposed government is rejected twice then the acting president of Libya (currently represented by the HoR's president) has the right to form a new government. 

But instead the HoR had granted the UN-imposed PC a third and final chance to come up with a smaller government (some say of 8 ministers) within 10 days. The HoR had also instructed the boycotting members to return to the PC and assist with forming the third GNA.

Nonetheless, this third government must secure the approval of ALL the PC's members including the boycotting members (as stated by Article 3 of the LPA). Finally the HoR had also declared all decisions coming from the PC to be illegal and ineffective (إلغاء قرارات المجلس الرئاسي), which according to some members is an illegal decision in itself because the HoR is part of the LPA and therefore cannot by itself cancel the LPA. This sounds like trouble ahead, once more. 

Dazzling Puzzle

To speak the language of people in the stricken streets, and send the jargon of politicians to the waste bin, one is compelled to say that there is one thing that is puzzling the dizzy minds of Libyans: the number of violations committed by all the governments of Libya and by the UN and other international powers dealing with Libya is truly astronomical.

The Odyssey continues to spew out one violation after another while the people continue to suffer the miseries of sick morality. Almost every single entity involved had violated one rule or another, right from day one: the imaginary massacre of Benghazi - the WMD of Libya. The UN, the EU, the AL, the NTC, the GNC, the CDA, the HoR, the PC, and the GNA had all indulged themselves with violation after another. What does that tell you? Is it your "biggest mistake"? Or is it your hidden agenda to divide Libya? Shame on you UN.

Friday, 19 August 2016

Faculty of Antiquities & Tourism (كلية الآثار والسياحة)

The University of Tobruk has revealed that it will create a faculty of antiquities & tourism. This will be the second faculty of tourism in Libya; the first being founded by Gaddafi's government way back in 2007. The building of Tobruk's education college will be used as the headquarters of the tourism college. After the planed refurbishment the building will be ready for the educational year 2016/2017. The dean of the new faculty, Mr. Belaid Emrabeth, was reported to have said that the number of targeted students for admission to the college will be around 100 students, and that places will be allocated according to the acceptance criteria. For further details about this faculty, and about Khums's faculty of antiquities & tourism (the first tourism faculty in North Africa), please see:

Sunday, 7 February 2016

Berber Victory: Algeria Officialises Tamazight In The Constitution


Historical news:  the Algerian Parliament today, Sunday the 7th of February 2016, has passed the draft revised constitution to make Tamazight an "official" language in the Algerian constitution [1]. The amended draft also calls for the creation of an academy of experts to promote Tamazight. 

The amended draft was passed by an overwhelming majority of 499 MPs, with only 2 MPs voting against, and 16 abstained. The proposed changes were first made public last month by the head of the presidential office in this tube [4]. 

Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal said the constitutional revision that included promoting Tamazight as an official language is "the crowning of the political reforms" originally initiated by the president Abdelaziz Bouteflika [2]. 

He also noted that that the revised draft "will help protect the country from political upheavals and threats to the national security" [3].

Let us hope the Arab leaders of  (stricken) Libya see the light that made them speak the words of "wisdom" and do what is right to save Libya's unity and national security. Hitting a brick wall with your head, like Gaddafi had said, would only hurt your head.

Let us hope the Arab leaders of Libya build the courage needed to respect the persecuted Libyans in the same way they seek the same respect for themselves. 

For more on constitutionalising Tamazight in Libya please see:

For information about the fake constitutionalisation of Tamazight in Morocco please see:



Not "Amazigh"

Tuesday, 17 November 2015

Berber Ghadames: The Joke of Arab Heritage for 2016

"The Berbers are the original Arabs." 
                                                                    Moammer Qaddafi

The Berbers have been accustomed to political bullying by Arab tyrants and their instruments of brutality ever since the Arab invasions of North Africa in 642 AD. But for the so-called Arab media "intellectuals" to vote Berber Ghadames "The Capital of Arab Heritage for 2016" is not only a "sick joke" but also a fatal violation of the most basic principle of literacy and history.

Imagine the Arabs voting Proxima Centauri the Jewish capital of the Arab universe, or even better, London the Capital of Arab Heritage for 911 BC. That is exactly the point - nothing makes sense any-more. 

Ghadames is a Berber oasis in every sense, and its inhabitants still speak Tamazight to this day. It has been a Berber oasis for at least 10,000 years; it has remained a Berber oasis 1400 years after the Arab invasions of North Africa; still is a Berber oasis against all odds; and it will remain a proud Berber pearl until the earth gets swallowed by the forthcoming solar eruption before resting a brown dwarf in empty space.

To say Ghadames is the capital of Arab Heritage is not only a violation of sanity but also a cultural crime of cosmic magnitude; a farce totally out of this world. Let us hope it is not a "disease", like Zuwarans had *fakebooked lately? Let us hope it is not a symptom of the Arab Spring madness currently wreaking havoc and destruction across the Arab world? 

The Berbers response, as usual, awaiting the Berber Spring (Tafsuyet Tamazight); while declaring their own contest of "the most beautiful Berber town in North Africa" -- nominating Ghadames, of course ;)

Author: Abracadabra Jackhammer Shishakabab


Ghadames Museum:

Saturday, 17 October 2015

The UN's Violation of The Signed Draft Libyan Political Agreement

The signed draft Libyan Political Agreement (photo source:

المشاركون في الحوار الليبي يوقعون بالأحرف الأولى على الإتفاق السياسي الليبي في الصخيرات، المغرب 

The fire gets bigger and bigger the more firemen are sent to deal with it.

Having bombed Libya back to the stone age in order to "protect civilians", then abandoned it to the bandits of chaos and terror, the UN returned a few years later to propose a controversial Government of National Accord (GNA) that included reported war criminals and in violation of the signed draft agreement.

Adding insult to injury the UN now says more than 2.4 million Libyan civilians are in need of further "protection" - probably meaning more international bombs will be on their way, since the previous 5900 UN bombing missions to protect the civilians in 2011 have obviously failed to achieve their explicit objective.

The "final" draft of the Libyan Political Agreement, according to the UN's envoy, "is not going to change". Yet in a dramatic announcement (a few months later) the same UN envoy said "the peace plan had also been changed, to include not five but six members of a new presidential council, headed by Serraj". It is not a lie, but perhaps a misrepresentation of truth, an unintended a mistake, or whatever else except what it is.

Many Libyans were quick to denounce what they called "the hypocrisy government", with one HoR member even hinting at "dictatorship" being exercised to endorse who should be the president of the so-called "Presidency Council", which he says is a matter entirely for the members of the council to decide once the council has been agreed.

Libya's ambassador to the UN, Mr. Ibrahim Aldabbashi (إبراهيم الدباشي) criticised the tactics of Mr. Leon (the UN envoy to Libya) saying that they show signs of "panic" where Mr. Leon wanders off the main path and gets lost whenever he encounters an obstacle in an attempt from him to please both governments against "legitimacy"; naming one fatal violation which is changing the signed agreement by himself without consultation in order to please the GNC, as he also insisted to include members from the GNC when the GNC itself refused to attend the session, refused to sign the agreement, and did not present any candidates. 

The seriousness of the matter becomes apparent when the Libyan National Commission For Human Rights (اللجنة الوطنية لحقوق الإنسان) said it has rejected all the results coming from the UN-organised dialogue, including the proposed government, because some of the members chosen were implicated in war crimes against humanity in the capital Tripoli.

Hence according to Libya's UN ambassador, Mr. Ibrahim Aldabbashi, the HoR has the right to object to the appointment of anyone who does not openly denounce the radical groups that were labelled "terror groups" by the UN security council.

In imposing a government of its own accord the UN has in effect abandoned the commitment to democracy, "forgetting that an elected government cuts its own throat when it agrees to cut a deal with armed militias".

Please see for a full list of the proposed members of the Government of National Accord.

Sunday, 8 February 2015

HOR Abolishes "Political Isolation Law"

The Libyan House of Representatives (HoR) was reported to have finally voted by a majority of those present on the abolition of the controversial "Political Isolation Law". It is not possible to access the HoR's website for official confirmation, but according to Press Solidarity [1] the news was confirmed by Isa Alaribi, a member of the House of Representative. 

The political isolation law was reportedly passed by the gun on May 2013 when the GNC was still in power. During that time the GNC was telling the Libyan people that it was powerless to protect its headquarters from the "co-ordinated" armed rebels who were left to wreak havoc across UN-demolished Libya - ironically while continuing to pay their salaries!

The spokesman of the Dignity Operation, Mr. M. Alhijazi, denied the military had exerted any power on the HoR to abolish the isolation law so that Major General Haftar can hold a political position if he intends to do so [2].

A few days later, the interior minister Omar Alsekni revealed that 90% of Libya's problems are caused by the political isolation law, and that freezing the law will enable the return of the administrative, security and military personnel to their positions so that they can participate in the construction of Libya's future - probably meaning the construction of Libya's destruction.


Sunday, 3 August 2014

Libyan House of Representatives (مجلس النواب) Election Results:

On the 22nd of May 2014 the GNC announced their decision to hold parliamentary elections on the 25th of June 2014. Although this hasty decision was made after the people's call for the GNC to step down (after its term of office came to an end in February 2014), the short period allowed would not be sufficient enough to prepare for the elections, the Libyans said, and thus asked: why the hurry again? 

In 2012 hundreds of political parties were quickly formed while the Libyans were left blasting each other in the background, with rockets and missiles continue to fall on civilian homes to this day (July 2014). The result was that Libya's first elections of the 7th of July 2012 resulted in a failed GNC, with the media, as usual, hailing the event a "success" despite the complications of the electoral system, and in spite of the number of violations committed including barring Berber-dominated district 8 from taking part in party-election. 

Such parties and failures may thus be the reason for many Libyans to boycott the elections of the Council of Representatives leading to a very low turnout - a mere 14% of the Libyan population voted for the Council of Representatives. Only 630,000 voters turned up for election out of 4.5 million Libyans.

The Council of Representatives, also known as the House of Representatives, or the Libyan Parliament, is a temporary, transitional body to govern the country until a constitution is written. The final constitution of Libya will define the politics of Libya and the procedures for electing the president, after which the permanent parliament will be elected. 

The Council of Representatives is made of 200 members representing most of the towns and cities of Libya, except some towns like Berber Jado and Zuwarah, who boycotted the elections due to constitutional marginalisation. One hundred and sixty eight (168) seats were allocated to men, leaving thirty two (32) seats for women. 

In total only 188 members were elected on the 25th of July 2014, with 12 seats remaining undecided due to boycott and violence erupting in some polling stations. The handover ceremony, according to Decree 56 of 2014, will take place on Monday the 4th of August 2014 (or tomorrow).

Please click here for more information about the Council of Representatives including a full list of  winners.


Tuesday, 28 January 2014

Temehu's Libya Visa Centre

Our new visa centre is designed to serve as a one stop shop for all the information a visitor might need in relation to visiting Libya, including the latest safety and visa updates,  and plenty of information about the new tourist visa procedure, business visa, journalist visa, spouse visa and work visa.  

The tourist visa on arrival is now available to foreign visitors as from January 2014 - this time without the expensive tour guide. The centre also provides information about visa prices and all the travel information you might need before visiting Libya. For further information please visit .

Wednesday, 15 January 2014

Libyan Visa Update (15): Tourist Visa To Libya Has Been Reinstated:

Tourist Visa:

The Ministry of Tourism has finally decided to start issuing tourist visas to foreign nationals wishing to visit Libya. The decision was taken in a meeting between the minister of tourism and Tripoli's immigration officials on the 26th of December 2013 [1]. Officials at the ministry of tourism have confirmed the news to us on early January 2014. The good news was also confirmed by the ministry's media coordinator to Libya Herald [2]. In a separate development Solidarity Press has reported [3] an agreement between the Libyan and Tunisian ministries of tourism to begin the activation of tourism in Libya and Tunisia. The representative of the Tunisian Office of Tourism in Tripoli, Mr. Ezeddin Alqarami, was reported to have said that the agreement relates to the preparations made for the year 2014, which will be a "promising year" for both countries [3]. The New Visa Procedure: the new regulations require a scanned copy of your passport to be sent to your chosen operator or visa provider and a list of the sites to be visited (the route). The visa approval will be available within 48 hours of the application being presented (if all goes well). The approval can be used to obtain the visa on arrival, as before, without the need to visit the embassy.


Attacks on checkpoints and the setting up of fake checkpoints continue to take place in Libya, with the addition of Libya's first suicide bomber striking at a checkpoint in Bersis, near Benghazi, killing 13 people [4]; thereby officially putting freed Libya on par with liberated Afghanistan and democratised Iraq. Travel at night is not recommended, and camping in deserted places remains a risky adventure in today's Libya. The Libyan government has authorised Libya Shield Forces to set up a number of checkpoints across the capital Tripoli in an attempt to clamp down on the terror activities carried out by the mystery terrorists in black vehicles (without number plates and with tinted glass) [5]. The announcement came after the spat of violence that plighted the capital Tripoli in recent months.

Land Borders:

Emsaad land border continues to be unpredictable, with the usual closures and occasional trouble. Ras Ejdir and Wazen appear to enjoy a relative stability in recent months, with the occasional incident that often results in closing the border for a few days. If you do have an entry visa to Libya then you would be allowed to enter and exit via these land borders. Remember, if you are allowed in via Ras Ejdir, for example, then you should be able to exit at the other end (Emsaad). According to the spokesman of the Libyan air force in the eastern region only 50% or 60% of Libyan borders are covered by the air force, leaving nearly half of Libya's borders totally unprotected. While according to an Algerian source quoted by LANA [8] the border between Libya and Algeria is under the control of extreme Salafist militias, and that 14 armed militias or units which do not belong to the central authority in Tripoli are in charge of the border area. The situation by the southern borders has not changed either. Despite the government's declaration of Fezzan a "military zone", criminal activity and violence continue to affect the area. According to a recent report by Libya Herald, illegal immigrants are crossing the border at Madama (near Tumu – the Libyan official border crossing station) without being asked for any documents, and that according to the head of Murzuk's military security, Colonel Barca, around "600 illegal immigrants cross the border every day" [9]. The Libya Herald report goes on to speak of an al-Qaeda terrorist camp in Isseyne, at the border between Ghat and Algeria, and that when Hassan Massafer ("a member of Katiba 206 in Obari") informed the authorities in Tripoli, he was told by the authorities: "‘Don’t do anything. You don’t see it. You don’t look at it!’" [9].


During Gaddafi's dictatorial grip on power Libya was among the safest destinations in the world. Two years ago, most Libyans were assured that Libya will never become like democratised Iraq, where nearly 1.4 million Iraqis died after the hanging of Saddam in the Big Feast, but today it is almost impossible to have a single day without a terrorist act shocking the Libyans already disoriented by the devastating war.

It took Libya's chief of the Special Forces two years, after the UN's authorised bombing campaign came to a sudden end, to say there was a "conspiracy" to plunge Libya into civil war; with Libya itself becoming the safe haven for radical groups and the centre for world terrorists, complete with Tesco - the largest arms black supermarket in the world. 

Therefore all visitors are warned that the security situation in Libya is worse than ever before. The reason for this is that the assassinations that were targeting Libyans in the past have now began to affect foreign visitors too. The dead bodies of one British engineer and a New Zealand woman were found by the beach in Sabratha in December 2013. They were shot dead.

For the first time in Libya's history big hotels have become a terrorist target. All the hotels attacked so far are 5-star hotels. The Radisson Blu Hotel was hit a number of times on the 7th of  November 2013 after heavy armed clashes erupted nearby. There were no casualties reported, but the guests were relocated to the basement [6]. The clashes have also affected the 5-star Waddan Hotel, the Turkish and the Italian embassies, the ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the ministry of Planning. One diplomatic source, who was staying at the Waddan Hotel at the time, spoke of an armed group entering the Waddan Hotel, terrorising guests "including senior diplomatic staff", and confiscating "possessions and money" at gunpoint [7]. On the 23rd of July 2013  a mortar narrowly missed the 5-star Corinthia Hotel, when a missile was launched from a vehicle that was parked in a car park behind the hotel.

To read the full visa update 15 please visit


Wednesday, 29 May 2013

Libya's Acting President Dr. Magerief Resigns

The full speech (by

Libya's acting president and head of the Libyan General National Congress, Dr. Mohammad Yousef Almagarief, has announced his resignation on the 28th of May 2013 - just over 9 months after he was elected on the 9th of August 2012. Passing the controversial Isolation Law in its present form - without any amendment or due consideration for such sacrifices endured by the early revolutionaries of Libya - is cruel and plain wrong. The president appeared deeply affected by the current tragedy; but also optimistic Libya will return. We wish the president safe farewell and sincerely hope he will return after yet ten-more-years of exile - at home.

The revolutionary president had resigned because he wanted to be the first to implement the unfair law; just as he was among the first to stand up to Gaddafi's regime some 30 years ago - when Gaddafi demolished his home in Benghazi in 1984. The president spoke highly of all ethnic and marginalised groups of Libya, as he was the only high official in free Libya, so far, to openly declare his support for the Berbers' constitutional rights! He has also stressed the need for national reconciliation.

It seems that pressure is mounting beyond expectation, leading to a number of ministers and local council presidents resigning ever since liberation was prematurely celebrated (by some). Brandishing weapons of violence against the law and intimidating officials and assassinating others has nothing to do with revolution. The president said he had "exhausted his energy" to the full; stressing the fact that his voice only counts as "one".

In his speech to the members of the GNC, Dr. Magerief started by outlining four issues that require urgent attention in order to steer Libya away from "square one".

The four issues pointed out by the president are summarised as follows:
  1. Legitimacy: the legitimacy of the elected government is the highest authority in Libya and should and ought to have been respected above all.

  2. The RevolutionThe Revolutionaries: the president warned that the principles of the revolution may stay the same, but its tools must change in accordance with the goals of the revolution and the legitimate law. Using arms to negotiate or force solutions contradicts the pillars of democracy, he said. He has also noted the most important of all issues currently facing Libya, which is the existence of armed groups operating outside the law, which he has "estimated at tens of thousands". In addition to such groups, the president spoke about other revolutionary groups,  who are among the "true revolutionaries" but somehow declared their allegiance to partisanship instead.

  3. Political Parties & Partisanship: regarding political parties, the president warned that party goals or objectives should not come before the benefit (or interest) of Libya itself. He also noted the need to "politicise" the administration, and protect Libya's robbed funds from being diverted out of the country.

  4. The Media & Its Role: without a doubt, the president had said, the media had played an important role during the revolution; but after the revolution had ended some media groups and independents deviated from their course, in the name of free speech, and began their disinformation campaigns to confuse the Libyans and create a state of instability, according to the wishes and the goals of other (unnamed) groups; leading to many Libyans, he said, to withdraw themselves away from the political dialogue taking place.

Following these issues, the president had some recommendations to the current transitional government of Prime Minister Ali Zidan, including:
  1. The government needs to acknowledge that its mission is temporary.
  2. Implement Security.
  3. Control the arms circulating in Libya.
  4. Improve the standard of living, especially of the poor.
  5. Youth education and training and facilitating marriage.
  6. Develop women's rights and issues to the best.
  7. Tackle drugs.
  8. Put a stop to health deterioration and environmental degradation.
  9. Fight financial corruption and its associated issues, which he says are infesting the society from within.
  10. Administration improvements.
  11. National Reconciliation, which he says is the most important issue the Libyans and the government need to address to steer away from "square one".
  12. He also advised people to think before "acting", and make sure they do not end up "pawns" on others' chess board.

More on Law 13/2013 (Isolation Law) and the GNC (the General National Congress) at

Wednesday, 22 May 2013

Temehu's Libyan Visa Update (14)

The overall advice is: stay away from Libya for the time being. As noted previously, adventure travellers, taking risks by nature, may enjoy a mix of anxiety and tranquility to nurture their desire to experience the real thing; so long as they are insured and warned of the lurking danger. Armed gangs or militia outlaws could appear anywhere and strike without warning. 

Tourist and transit visas still are suspended by the Libyan transitional government; and all our visa services remain suspended until the ban is lifted. Please note that due to the volume of enquiries we may not be able to respond to all the emails we receive. Apology in advance.

  • Security And Safety: the security situation is worsening, despite the government's claim to the contrary; and the bombing campaign that was affecting mainly Benghazi has now reached the capital Tripoli. The Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zidan, in his recent press conference (aired by, via Alwataniya), said his police and security forces have diffused a number of car bombs and that the diplomatic community was informed. No doubt the government is having difficulties finding a way out of the inflicted chaos, largely due to lack of exit strategy. But as time has demonstrated, time and time again, peace and pursuit of science are the only principles for lasting stability and prosperous success.

  • Attack on Foreign Visitors: the Libyans' worst fear is here - the attack on foreign visitors including women was officially acknowledged to have taken place in Benghazi [21], when a British family was violated by an armed group acting outside the law [22]. It is such groups that are now roaming "liberated Libya", seemingly and practically unstoppable by the law. 

  • Checkpoints: generally speaking checkpoints are manned by armed officers working for the government, but there is also the possibility of being stopped by an armed gang or rebels at a fake checkpoint. Undercover cameramen from Solidarity Press traveled from Tripoli to Benghazi to investigate the conditions in which checkpoints operate. The team have discovered that there are 18 checkpoints between Tripoli and Benghazi, as follows: 5 points in Mesratha, 2 in Sirte, and 1 point for each other town between Benghazi and Tripoli. They have also discovered that there was no proper search for identity documents in any of the checkpoints, except in Mesratha where checkpoint officers conduct vigorous checks on identities and vehicle documents, as well as search the vehicles for concealed weapons [23]. The correspondents said the security forces manning the checkpoints were from the Security Support Units & Military Police (جهاز الإسناد الأمني وإدارة الشرطة العسكرية).

  • Libyan Tourism: the Tourism Committee at the GNC continues to discuss the ministry's development plan for 2013. However, it is not known what the ministry can achieve with a budget of one million dinars (around £500,000) - the amount assigned to the Ministry of Tourism by the current 2013 Budget of 66.8 billion Libyan Dinars. Libya Herald says the amount given to the tourism ministry is, "the lowest sum awarded to any ministry this year" [24].

  • On Saturday the 9th of March 2013 the minister of tourism, Ikram Imam, held a meeting in Benghazi with the managers of a number of tourism companies and tourist offices from Cyrenaica, to discuss the current state of tourism in Libya. Like the minister's earlier meetings with similar organisations and companies in Tripolitania and Fezzan, the ministry reviewed the "action plan" of the ministry to create "the necessary atmosphere" for the development of sustainable tourism in Libya, such as "updating" the institutional structure of the ministry "in preparation for the start" to take the necessary steps to activate or stimulate domestic tourism and raise the quality of tourism services in the region. And like most other ministers, the tourism minister did refer to the "difficulties" the ministry had endured under the rule of the previous transitional government, such as the non-activation of the General Board for Tourism (as reported by long before the new ministry was created) and also the government's withdrawal of the Board's direct terms of reference, leading to, the minister said, obstructing the work of the ministry in relation to the "supervision" and "follow-up" of its projects. 

  • A number of managers, however, have expressed their "dissatisfaction" with the ministry's performance, and accused the ministry of not providing the necessary support and services required to enable Libyan tourism companies and organisations to fulfil their role in "activating" this vital  sector of Libya's promising economy - just as the ministry itself blamed the previous transitional government for not doing enough to re-activate tourism in Libya. They have also demanded from the minister to provide "opportunities for young Libyans" to effect and run Libyan tourism investment projects abroad, in order to benefit from the opportunity to develop their abilities and expertise in the field of tourism - just as foreign companies (including some from dictatorial states) are eagerly urged to participate and even lead. Why not, they asked, why not? At the end of the meeting, the minister expressed her "understanding" of the complaints put forward, and confirmed that the ministry "will strive to address" all the "obstacles" and proposals [17]. Understandably the minister goes away, meeting with other tourism officials from other towns, regions and states, re-reviewing her "plan" for activating tourism that never gets activated.

  • There is no doubt that tourism companies and organisations in Libya had suffered from the day the war began. Without any due support or compensation from the government to offset the loss sustained during and after the war, many Libyan tourism companies were forced to close and lay their staff, due to their inability to cover the incurred costs. Many Libyan tour operators gathered at the tourism board and demanded news regarding the saga of the "Libya Visa" and activation of tourism, without of which they cannot survive. In contrast, the Libyan transitional Prime Minister, Dr. Ali Zidan, had confirmed on the 21st of February 2013 that Libya will compensate the Turkish companies that were forced to stop their activities during the war, and that these companies will be offered "incentives" to encourage their return to Libya [10] - something most Libyan companies patiently still are waiting for. 

  • Tourism companies, civil society organisations and charities interested in tourism from Fazzan (southern Libya) have expressed their deep disapproval of the current policies of the Tourism Ministry, which they say do not benefit the nation at this particular stage, and even condemned the current policies of the ministry as a "waste of state funds". In a protest staged in Sebha, on Thursday the 14th of February 2013, they demanded from the GNC's Tourism Committee and from the Ministry of Tourism to stop wasting Libyans' money by participating in international exhibitions that do not serve the interests of the public at the present time, and instead called for the government to focus on the "inner workings of the country" [7]. They have also spoken of "financial transparency" and the establishment of a "Higher Council for Tourism" to oversee the development of tourism infrastructure in the southern region, which they said was previously neglected. Such calls for transparency were voiced before by the Board of Tourism itself, as reported in one of our earlier updates, but nothing was heard of the matter since.

  • Land Borders: the president of the Department of Cooperation and Relations at the Immigration Department, Nasreddin Ghellab, has revealed on Thursday the 7th of February 2013 the creation of an electronic system to document the entry and exit of all foreigners. The system was said to be linked to all land, sea and air entry points as well as to the Libyan embassies. The new system will enable any patrol unit to confirm within seconds  whether the provided documentation is legitimate or not. Work is also underway to link this system with the "residency system" to confirm the legality of any foreign resident in Libya. The projects are the personal efforts of the engineers, the technicians and the officers of the Immigration Department, he said [1]. 

  • Local Egyptians have blocked the road leading to the Libyan border in a protest against the new visa regulation, which requires from all Egyptian nationals to obtain Libyan visa from the Libyan embassy in Cairo before heading for the border [8]. Around ten days later, LANA reported that  the movement across the Emsaad border has returned to "normal" on the 7th of March 2013, after the Egyptian drivers were issued with temporary Libyan visa (lasting for 10 days), while at the same time maintaining the earlier requirement of Libyan entry visa to be obtained from the Libyan embassy in Egypt from all other Egyptians [15]. However, on the 30th of March 2013 LANA has issued a warning to all Libyans to avoid travelling to Egypt via the land border, and instead urged all traveller to fly to Egypt [19]. The warning came after violence broke out again in the Egyptian side, when protesters destroyed one of the custom offices [20]; leading to a number of Libyan families being stuck at the border (inside Egypt), unable to return to Libya after they were prevented from doing so by some Egyptian groups that do not belong to the Egyptian authorities, unless they raised the green flag and called Gaddafi's name, Solidarity Press said [21]. 

Read the full update at:


Saturday, 23 March 2013

Alarm: Attacks on Libyan Oil Facilities: Mellitah, Ghani, Dahra And Jalu 59:

The Libyan government has declared, long time ago, that it has established a special force to protect Libyan oil installations, called the "Petroleum Facilities Guard", or the "Oil Installations Guard", and reportedly made of 15,000 guards. This issue was further debated after the tragedy at In Aminas Gas Complex - next door, to which the Libyan government responded by saying that security measures are implemented across Libya to ensure the safety of such important government installations as well as Libya's guests.

Yet despite this formidable force and the false assurances thrown at the media, there were 4 attacks on oil and gas installations in Libya in the past 3 weeks alone, plus the reported protests from Zueitina and from Jalu 59, and all the other attacks on oil installations forgotten from 2012 - more than enough for any concerned government to be alarmed, rather than sit back and condemn the attacks as "unacceptable" after they take place.

This is like the Special Security Force set up by the GNC to protect the GNC, only to see the GNC being repeatedly attacked; gradually reducing many Libyans to doubt the current leadership's capabilities to lead out of the quagmire, before tyranny reappears. 

Not only that, but also it has emerged now that certain militias are in fact part of this Petroleum Facilities Force - something the Libyans had always opposed to, and instead called for the government to dismantle all militias, without exception, and establish one unified force. Worse still, they say "blackmail" does not work, but then even the protesters who occupied the GNC itself, for a full month, were recently bargained with by agreeing to all their demands (except compensation), including no less than 2,000 monthly-wage "for life" [1]. Such deals, Libya Herald says, "the average Libyan could only dream of" [2]. 

Between October and December 2012 Zawya Refinery Plant, in western Libya, was shut down at least 4 times in three months, by unchallenged protesters, costing the wounded country massive loss in revenues, apparently because the government had failed to provide "war amputees" and the "wounded" with medical treatment for the injuries sustained during the war; for which the government was later reported to have responded by agreeing to send them to Germany for medical treatment. Please do not try this at home; since the expected consequences usually can be no more than what Bin Mokhtar's chosen men had met in In Aminas. Such soft responses, however, from the current transitional government of Libya may be excused to avoid "bloodshed", as the leaders say, but then "where" and "when" can one draw the line? When enough is enough?

  1. Overall, there were a number of disruptions to a number of oil installations and terminals since liberation was officially presumed, mostly calling for "more regional autonomy" and improved living conditions; with some activists calling for the NOC Headquarters itself to be re-instated to Benghazi - where it was before Gaddafi was installed.
  2. 20 March 2013: al-Ghani Oil Field: according to Reuters, armed rebels from the "Jawdran Brigade" had attacked el-Ghani oil field. The field belongs to Libya's Harouge Oil. Salah Ali, the commander of "Jazira Militia" (part of the government force guarding the field), told Reuters that the rebel force arrived with "around 150 to 180 pickups mounted with weapons" and that they "brought men from other brigades from other towns" [9]. Two days later, Libya TV said the attack took place in the Zella well, where al-Jazira militia was involved in the armed clashes using RPG, 105 and 106, leaving one well damaged, the offices of government forces burnt, and two injuries. According to one speaker in the Libya TV report, Ibrahim Aljadran had attempted to negotiate with al-Jazira militia to hand over the protection of the field to the Petroleum Facilities Guard before the clashes broke out, but the militia refused.
  3. 18 March 2013: Dahra Oil Field: armed clashes broke out at the Dahra field between oil protection guards and the attacking armed rebels. The field is operated by the Libyan company Waha Oil. Reuters says its source said the "feud was over who would guard the facility" [8]; and that "an exchange of fire could also be heard at the nearby al-Ghani field". Two days later, Reuters reported the militias were involved in the attack, as well as in the attack that followed two days later at al-Ghani field (see above, 20 March 2013).
  4. 15 March 2013: Jalu (Gialo): 100 protesters from Jalu were protesting at Jalu 59, also belonging to Waha Oil, since the 11th of March 2013. They have blocked the entrance and prevented trucks from entering the oil field, which Reuters says its Waha source said have resulted in five drilling sites being affected and output being disrupted, and that two more sites will be affected if the protest goes on [6]. The news that Jalu 59 was closed as a result of the protests, LANA said, were denied by the Oil Minister Abdelbari Alarusi on the 16th of March 2013 [7].  Apparently the protesters were not happy with Waha Oil not "using locally hired vehicles and drivers at the field". Berber, Tebu and Arab locals from the rich zone have in the past complained about the state of poverty in which they still live, and about their communities being deprived of their share of the local resources channelled elsewhere.
  5. 15 March 2013: Sirte:  a bomb was discovered along Gas Line Valve 17 - 375 kilometres (خط الغاز صمام 17 – 375 كيلو متر), located 60 km west of Sirte [5]. The bomb was successfully defused by a unit from Zawya's Martyrs Militia (part of the Libyan army), which later said an environmental, humanitarian and economic disaster would have cost the country billions had the bomb went off. Coming just over 10 days after the armed clashes at Mellitah Gas Complex, and 3 days before the attack on Dahra Oil Field, the government must do more than condemn such attacks, and make sure all gas and oil installations are 100% secured, if any lessons were learnt from In Aminas. There simply can be no excuse, whatsoever, for the authorities to leave such dangerous attacks take place.
  6. 28 February 2013: Mellitah:  the incident at the Mellitah Gas Complex was reported as clashes between local militias competing for control over the gas complex, which is far from the truth. Solidarity Press says clashes broke out between forces from Zuwarah and "forces deviating from the law" from Zintan, and that the armed clashes broke out inside the gas complex itself before spreading to the outside [10]. The incident was in fact started by four people from the area of ​​Zintan, in Nafusa Mountain, miles away in Sabratha; where four Zintanis were involved in a shooting incident, before they fled towards Zuwarah, where they were met by a local man. They asked him to take them to the hospital, which he did; but upon arrival at the hospital, it became apparent to staff that one of them was "drunk" and troublesome. When the Directorate of National Security was informed, they discovered that the directorate had already issued an arrest warrant for the four Zintanis who were involved in an incident in Sabratha. When the four Zintani were arrested, the news reached Zintan (or other Zintanis nearby), who then demanded the release of the four Zintani offenders. When Zuwarah's security directorate refused to give in to their demands, Zintani armed men set up a fictitious check point outside Mellitah, on the following day, and took 8 hostages from Zuwarah, hoping to trade them for the four Zintanis wanted by the police. This is the account given by Zuwarah's Commander of the Eastern check point of Libya Shield, in a video interview [11]. He adds that the Ministries of Interior and Defence were informed and that the Zintani kidnappers were informed that they cannot trade hostages because the Zintani defendants were handed over to the Authorities. This apparently, he says, had angered the kidnappers, who turned up on the following day and began shooting at them right outside the complex and even began beaten civilians.

    According to another report, also on the following day, it was agreed in a meeting attended by Zuwarah's local council and GNC member, Zawya's GNC member, Sabratha's local council and a number of dignitaries from Serman and Zuwarah that a committee should meet with Zintani tribal leaders to mediate a peaceful solution to the problem. Zuwarah Media Centre [12] says the convoy was attacked by Zintanis before its meeting in Mellitah, and that after it became apparent that one fighter from Zuwarah was killed, Zuwarah's members decided to pull out of the delegation and let the rest of the group negotiate the same agreed conditions. These conditions are as follows: immediate ceasefire; eviction of all Zintani militias from Mellitah; exchange of hostages; and handing over of Mellitah to the Petroleum Facilities Guard.  However, according to Ossan [13] and other sources, Zuwarah's military force intervened to release the hostages, and that shooting broke out after a Zintani military force arrived to rescue the four Zintanis detained by Zuwarah's directorate of security, and began shooting indiscriminately including at civilians, killing Rawad Assanousi Alhasayri, from Zuwarah, and injuring 7 more people, 3 of whom were seriously wounded - one of whom died on the 16th of March 2013, named by Zuwarah Media Centre as Ala Aribi Abodieb [11].

    The gas complex was closed down for safety reasons, but work was resumed on the 3rd of March, after the Libyan army took temporary control of the complex [14]. It is not clear why the government and the Petroleum Facilities Guard are not protecting such important sites.
  7. 22 December 2012Zueitina protesters broke into Zueitina Oil Port and commanded the manager to shut down operations, as they demanded from the transitional leaders to provide them with "jobs" [3].
  8. 13 November 2012: Sidra: staff at the Sidra Oil Terminal, of Waha Oil Company, went on strike, and threatened the central management in the capital Tripoli that they will stop all production and export unless their demands were met. One member of the port's trade union, Awed Bakori, told Solidarity Press that the demands are not "personal" but were "legitimate demands" affecting all employees, such as increasing the allowance for shifts (currently stands at about 10 dinars); complete their health insurance; reduction of working hours from 12 hours a day; fulfil all the promises made by the company in Tripoli; give some local powers to the company's representative at the port; reconsider car insurance for employees; improve transportation routes leading to the port; and re-activate procedures for "pension", which they say is given to foreign workers but not to them [4].
  9. 05 July 2012Ras Lanuf, Sidra and Brega:  armed Cyrenaicans shut down at least three major oil terminals, including Ras Lanuf, Sidra and Brega. The protesters said the strike will continue for 48 hours, unless the government responds to their demands, which include equal numbers at the General Assembly. The strike has reduced Libya's oil output by about 300,000 bpd.